Who Ruled after Julius Caesar

The reign of Augustus laid the foundation for a regime that, in one form or another, lasted nearly 1,500 years until the final decline of the Western Roman Empire and until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. His adoptive surname Caesar and title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of the Roman Empire for fourteen centuries after his death, used in ancient and new Rome. In many languages, Caesar became the word for emperor, as in the German emperor and in the Bulgarian and later Russian tsar (sometimes tsar or tsar). The cult of Divus Augustus continued until the state religion of the empire was converted to Christianity by Theodosius I in 391. Therefore, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first emperor. He had written an account of his achievements, the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, which was to be inscribed in bronze in front of his mausoleum. [241] Copies of the text were inscribed throughout the empire after his death. [242] The Latin inscriptions contained Greek translations next to it and were engraved on many public buildings, such as the Ankara Temple, called Monumentum Ancyranum and described by historian Theodor Mommsen as the “Queen of Inscriptions.” [243] His biographer Suetonius, about a century after Augustus` death, describes his appearance as follows: “Unusually handsome and extremely graceful at all stages of his life, though he did not care about personal jewels. He was so far from taking care of dressing his hair that he had several hairdressers in haste at once, and as for his beard, he now had it cut and now shaved, while reading or writing something. His eyes were clear and bright. His teeth were spread apart, small, and poorly maintained; his hair was slightly curly and tended towards gold; [l] His eyebrows met. His ears were of medium size and his nose protruded a little upwards, then slightly curved inwards. His complexion was between darkness and light.

He was short in stature, although Julius Marathus, his freedman and keeper of his records, claims that he was five feet and nine inches (just under 5 feet) tall. 7 inches or 1.70 meters, in modern height measurements), but this was obscured by the fine proportion and symmetry of his figure, and was only noticeable in comparison with a taller person standing next to him. “,[285] adding that “his shoes were a little high to make him look taller than he really was.” [286] Scientific analysis of traces of paint found in his official statues shows that he most likely had light brown hair and eyes (his hair and eyes were depicted in the same color). [287] The public was largely aware of the enormous financial resources available to Octavian. He failed to encourage enough senators to fund the construction and maintenance of road networks in Italy in 20 BC. J.-C., but he assumed direct responsibility for it. This was published on the Roman coinage, which was issued in 16 BC after he gave large sums of money to the Aerarium Saturni, the public treasury. [126] Shortly after his illness subsided, Augustus abandoned his consulship.

The only other times Augustus served as consul were in 5 and 2 BC. A.D.[161][165] both times to introduce his grandchildren to public life. [155] This was a clever trick of Augustus; Retiring as one of two consuls elected annually gave potential senators a better chance of gaining consular post, while Augustus was able to exercise broader patronage within the senatorial class. [166] Although Augustus resigned as consul, he wanted to keep his consular empire not only in his provinces, but throughout the empire. This wish, along with the Marcus Primus case, led to a second compromise between him and the Senate, known as the Second Settlement. [167] Tiberius was involved in Augustus` powers as tribune from 6 BC. J.-C., but retired soon after, allegedly no longer wanting to play a role in politics during his exile in Rhodes. [181] [224] No specific reason for his departure is known, although it may have been a combination of reasons, including a failed marriage to Juliet,[181][224] and a sense of envy and exclusion over Augustus` apparent preference for his young grandchildren, who became his sons Gaius and Lucius. (Gaius and Lucius entered the priestly college at an early age, were presented to the audience in a more favorable light, and presented to the army in Gaul.) [225] [226] While his paternal family came from the Volscian city of Velletri, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Rome, Augustus was born in Rome on September 23, 63 BC.

[13] [14] He was born at Ox Head, a small estate on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.

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